بایگانی دسته: زبان تخصصی

جلسهٔ یازدهم زبان تخصصی؛ 6 خرداد 89

They see and hear in the “mind’s eye and ear” that which is hidden from the sight and hearing of ordinary people. Their imagination takes the shape of an extraordinary revelation (a Western notion) or a profound insight (an Eastern notion). So powerful is this mode of imaginative thinking that the thinker’s mind soars in time and apace, moves beyond reason, visualizes and generates ideas, alters the course of events, and creates or invents another order of existence or reality beyond this life.

Creative religious individuals are possessed and haunted by fixed and besetting images that are ascribed either to an internal source known as insight, awareness, or consciousness (an Eastern notion) or to an external source known as revelation (a Western notion).

آن‌ها با چشم و گوش ذهن خود،‌ چیزی را می‌بینند و می‌شنوند که از سمع و نظر مردم عادی پنهان است. قوهٔ تخیل آن‌ها به شکل یک مکاشفه فوق‌العاده (در نگاه غربی) یا یک بصیرت عمیق (در نگاه شرقی) در می‌آید. این شیوهٔ تفکر خلاق به قدری قدرتمند است که ذهن متفکر زمان و مکان را در می‌نوردد و از مرز عقل عبور می‌کند، تصویرسازی و خلق فکر می‌کند، مسیر رویدادها را دگرگون می‌کند و نظام دیگری از وجود می‌آفریند یا حقیقت دیگری فراسوی این حیات ابداع می‌کند.

دین‌داران خلاق، تحت تأثیر و در معرض خطور پی‌درپی پندارهایی هستند که به یک منبع درونی موسوم به بصیرت، آگاهی یا خودآگاهی (در نگاه شرقی) یا به یک منبع بیرونی به نام وحی منسوب است.

Assignment from the previous session:
– How are we to interpret the increased religiousness of the participants?
– The focus of current research is thus beginning to move beyond question of physical health.
– Just a few decades ago, it made little sense to differentiate between religiousness and spirituality.
تکالیف هفتهٔ قبل:
– ما چگونه باید رشد دین‌داری شرکت‌کنندگان را تفسیر کنیم؟
– بنابراین، تمرکز بر تحقیقات جاری، نقطهٔ آغازی برای حرکت به فراسوی مسئلهٔ سلامت جسمی است.
– تا همین چند دههٔ گذشته، تفکیک بین دینداری و معنویت، مفهوم اندکی داشت.
Assignment for the next session:
– Although religiousness is positively associated with social functioning throughout adulthood, it takes on increased significance.
– In Christianity, alternative forms of life were now possible for a large group of women, forms of life which were not defined by biological determination.
– He asserts that spirit belongs to an altogether different reality.
– So Marx and Engels, taking up the ideas of H. Morgan, and explicitly defending the possibility of divorce without divorce proceedings, were concerned radically to change the status of women as were as men instruments of production.

Assignment for the session after the next session:
– Hearing the noise, I ran out holding the keys in one hand and the book in the other.
– I stood still holding breath with my hand deep in my pocket.
– Hearing the explosion, they ran out pale and frightened.
– Father left for the north and returned after ten days, his spirit obviously improved.

Grammar:
1. Infinitive types
2. Infinitive uses
3. Infinitive phrases: Introductory of final

– (in order to) To switch on, press the red button
– (if) To hear her talk, you would think she was made of money.
– (if) To see them together, you would think they were on old married couple.
– (let’s, now we…) To return to the table. It is evident from what we’ve said, that…
– (in brief, briefly) To cut a long story short, we said ‘no’.
– (in fact, the truth is that) I’ve never met him, to tell you the truth.

4. Infinitive in verb patterns

جلسه دهم کلاس زبان تخصصی؛ 4 خرداد 89

Assignment from the previous session:

  1. The Mainly-Muslim West Beirut is usually a scene of bombings.
  2. The college is designated No smoking Area.
  3. Hence the further creative ethics must be one of freedom, Compassion and creativeness.
  4. The charter has been designed in accordance with a national framework aimed at maintaining and improving standards, while at the same time being tailored to meet the specific needs of the college.
  5. The view of God seen in the selection from the Upanishads, often termed Pantheism will not be neglected entirely.


تکالیف هفتهٔ قبل:

  1. بیروت غربی که عمدتا مسلمان‌نشین است،‌ معمولا صحنهٔ بمباران‌ها است.
  2. دانشگاه مکانی در زمرهٔ مکان‌هایی است که در آن سیگار کشیدن ممنوع است.
  3. بنابراین، اخلاق خلاقانه‌تر باید اخلاقی مبتنی بر آزادی، دلسوزی و خلاقیت باشد.
  4. این منشور، منطبق با چارچوبی ملی طراحی شده است که هدف از آن تداوم و ارتقاء‌ معیارهاست و در عین حال به نحوی شایسته نیازهای خاص دانشگاه را برآورده سازد.
  5. مفهوم خدا که در قطعٔ برگزیده گزیدهٔ اوپانیشدها دیده می‌شود و معمولا وحدت وجود خوانده می‌شود، یکسره نادیده گرفته نخواهد شد.

From the main text:
To put it another way, religion is a specialized activity of the imaginative mind. Certain individuals – prophets, priests, mystics, visionaries, sages, gurus, imams, and other religious masters – possess a unique uncommon or rarefied quality of this imaginative mind.


ادامهٔ متن اصلی کلاس:
اگر بخواهیم به شیوه‌ای دیگر این نکته را بیان کنیم، دین فعالیتی ویژهٔ ذهن خلاق است. افراد خاصی مانند پیامبران، کشیش‌ها، عرفا، اهل کشف و شهود، حکما، گوروها، امامان و دیگر رهبران دینی از یک کیفیت بی‌نظیر نادر یا بالا از این گونه ذهن خلاق، برخوردار بوده‌اند.

Assignment for the next session:
– How are we to interpret the increased religiousness of the participants?
– The focus of current research is thus beginning to more beyond question of physical health.
– Just a few decades ago, it made little sense to differentiate between religiousness and spirituality.

Grammar:
We were talking about sentences: Participle phrases…


Participle phrases

1. Reduced adj clauses

A: Present Participle

– Boys attending this school have to wear uniform.
– The “creator” of Timaeus is god working after the pattern of the eternal Ideas.
خالق کتاب تیمائوس، خدایی است که به تبع مثل افلاطونی کار می‌کند.

B: Past Participle
– Some of the scientists invited to the conference could not attend.

– The people questioned gave very different opinions.

C: Appositive
– History, [which is] my favorite subject, has always fascinated me.
– Peter Smith, [who is] the head librarian, has a degree in history.

2. Reduced Adverb clauses

A: If

– Given her interest in children, I am sure teaching is the right career for her.
اگر به علاقهٔ او نسبت به بچه‌ها توجه شود، مطمئنم تدریس شغل درست برای اوست. با توجه به علاقهٔ او به بچه‌ها…

– Used economically, one tin will last at least for 2 months.
به تعبیر اقتصادی، یک قوطی کنسرو دست‌کم دو ماه دوام می‌آورد.

– Assuming that newspaper accounts reflect public opinion, Chicagoans must have been abnormal at the increase in property-related crime.
اگر بتوان پذیرفت که تفاسیر روزنامه‌ای، نظر عمومی را منعکس می‌کنند، باید به اهالی شیکاگو راجع به افزایش جرایم مالی هشدار داده شود.

B: While/as (Concurrent Actions)
– Driving through the countryside, Alvin gazed upon the fruit trees.
آلوین، در حالی که از جاده‌های روستایی عبور می‌کرد خیره شد به درخت‌های میوه.

C: After (Sequential Actions)
– Having eaten his breakfast, he got out of the house.

D: Since (sequential actions)
– Having failed twice, he didn’t want to try again.

E: By
– Twisting her body sideways, she freed himself from his grip.

با چرخاندن بدن خودش، خود را از چنگ او آزاد کرد.


F: Also

3. Reduced independent clauses
In this type we have two independent phrase, so we have to use two sentences in translation and put “and” or “,” between them.

الف: عمل اول، مقدمه و زمینه‌ای برای عمل دوم:
– Opening the door, he took out a shirt.

او در را گشوده، پیراهنی برداشت.

– Picking up the phone, Judy dialed a number.

جودی گوشی را برداشت و شماره‌ای را گرفت/ او با برداشتن گوشی تلفن، شماره‌ای را گرفت/ او گوشی تلفن را برداشته، شماره‌ای را گرفت.

ب: عمل دوم، پیامد قهری عمل اول:
– I fell, striking my head against the door. (… and struck)
من افتادم، پس سرم به در خورد.


Verbal:
1. Gerunds
2. Single participle

○ Adjective participle (ing, ed)
– The game was exciting (or boring).
– That was the most thrilling experience I have ever had.
– The young writer was pleased with the editor’s encouraging remarks.
– The pictures will be taken by a hidden camera.
– The ironed clothes should be put in the drawer.
– Such an experiment is valid only under rigidly controlled condition.
○ …

3. Infinitive